Explain long and /or short-term causes and/or effects of an historical event, development, or process.
Evaluate the relative significance of different causes and/or effects on historical events or processes, distinguishing between causation and correlation and showing an awareness of historical contingency.
What are the major causes or consequences of “event” and what were the most important causes or consequences of “event”?
X = least important cause or consequence, with an explanation why; explained thoroughly with a piece of specific evidence or example
A, B = most important causes / consequences, explanations why, broken up into organizational categories Y = your assertion statement regarding the most significant causes or consequences
What were the reasons for this event? What factors contributed to a specific pattern or trend? What prompted this person/group to act/react this way?
What resulted from this event, pattern, or action? What were the short-term effects? What were the longterm effects?
What cause seemed to be the most significant? What effect seemed to be the most significant and why?
How do the assessments of historians concerning causation differ from those who experienced the event, pattern, or action?
How might the chain of cause and effect have changed and at what point? What causes were contingent on previous effects? What individual choice(s) made a significant difference in the lead up to a particular event or trend? Was there a moment of chance that influenced the chain of events?
How do we practice this in class?
In class we learn this during Graphic Organizers, Socratic Seminar, Lecture, Cornell Notes, and Practice Essays
Why are the questions significant for analysis?
Every event, pattern or trend, or action has a cause—a reason or set of reasons why it happened. Historians do not simply arrange events in chronological order; instead, they seek to understand why things happened as well as what effects an event, pattern or trend, or action had. Most events, actions, or trends have many causes; historians seek to identify the most significant shortand long-term causes and effects. Significance can be understood in different ways. Sometimes the most significant causes and effects are those that are the most direct. Sometimes they are defined as those that contributed the most. Other times, historians look for specific types of causes and effects, such as political causes or economic effects. Additionally, historians understand that events are not the result of predetermined outcomes or inevitable progress. They recognize that all events are contingent on many factors, from individual choices to unforeseeable events— change one of these factors and history could have been very different. Focusing on contingency, historians explore concepts of agency and individual action when discussing the significance of a particular cause or effect.
Where you prove that you can do this on the exam
The DBQ, Multiple Choice, Short Answer and Long Essay
Instructional Strategies for the Underlying Questions
Begin a classroom discussion of a specific event by reviewing long and short-term causes. Ask students to identify the most significant causes and explain why they made the choices they did.
After discussing an event or action in class, ask students to identify a short-term and long-term political, cultural, and economic effect of that event.
Have students work in groups to construct a timeline that charts causes and effects of a specific event or trend. In a follow-up discussion with the entire class, identify the most significant causes and effects.
Ask students to compare selected pages in the textbook on a specific event with a primary source concerning the event. Discuss the differences in explanations of causes and effects, and ask students why someone contemporary to the event might identify different causes and effects than a historian would.
After constructing a timeline that depicts causes and effects to a particular event or trend, have students choose to change one cause and explain how this change would have made the most significant difference in the outcome and why. In a followup discussion, students debate their changes, using the evidence from their cause and effect timelines.
Email: Patenl@nv.ccsd.net AP/Honors United States History Senior Class Advisor
Class Schedule P1 - APUSH P2 - US Hon P3 - US Hon P4 - US Hon P5 - US HonP6 - PREP P7 - PREPP8 - US Hon